In Paragraph 1, The Word Arduous Is Closest In Meaning To _______

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Read the following passage & mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to lớn indicate the correct answer khổng lồ each of the questions.

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A large number of inventions require years of arduous research and development before they are perfected. For instance, Thomas Edison had khổng lồ make more than 1,000 attempts to invent the incandescent light bulb before he finally succeeded. History is replete with numerous other examples of people trying, yet failing khổng lồ make inventions before they eventually succeeded. Yet some inventions have sầu come about not through hard work but simply by accident.

In most cases, when someone unintentionally invented something, the inventor was attempting to create something else. For example, in the 1930s, chemist Roy Plunkett was attempting to lớn make a new substance that could be used lớn refrigerate items. He mixed some chemicals together. Then, he put them into lớn a pressurized container và cooled the mixture. By the time his experiment was complete, he had a new invention. It was not a new substance that could be used for refrigeration though. Instead, he had invented Teflon, which is today most commonly used to lớn make nonstiông xã pots & pans. Similarly, decades earlier, John Pemberton was a pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia.

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He was attempting to lớn create a tonic that people could use whenever they had headaches. While he was not successful in that endeavor, he managed to invent Coca -Cola, the world - famous carbonated soft drink.

Scientists have also made crucial discoveries by accident when they were conducting experiments. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, an antibiotic, in this manner. He discovered some mold growing in a dish with some bacteria. He noticed that the bacteria seemed to lớn be avoiding the mold. When he investigated further, he determined some of the many useful properties of penicillin, which has saved millions of lives over the past few decades. Likewise, in 1946, scientist Percy Spencer was conducting an experiment with microwaves. He had a candy bar in his pocket, & he noticed that it suddenly melted. He investigated and learned the reason why that had happened. Soon afterward, he built a device that could utilize microwaves to heat food. the microwave oven.